Thursday 21 November schedule

22 November schedule (provisional)

8.30 Registration and welcome coffee (in the Gallery and Marble Hall)
Lecture Theatre
Education Room


Chair : Olaf-Michael Stefanov


Ayla Rigouts Terryn, Lieve Macken, Els Lefever, Robert Vander Stichele, Koen Vanneste and Joost Buysschaert (Uni. of Ghent)

Ayla Rigouts Terryn is a PhD scholar at the LT3 language and translation technology team at Ghent University. She has a master in Translation from Antwerp University and researched translation revision competence at her alma mater. In 2015, she started at Ghent University to pursue her interests in natural language processing on the SCATE (Smart Computer-Aided Translation Environment) project. She currently holds a PhD scholarship from the Research Foundation – Flanders to study monolingual and multilingual automatic terminology extraction from comparable corpora. Her other research interests include medical translation and the difference between laypeople and specialists for terminology and translation tasks.

Lieve Macken is Assistant Professor at the Department of Translation, Interpreting and Communication at Ghent University (Belgium). She has strong expertise in multilingual natural language processing. Her main research focus is translation technology and more specifically the comparison of different methods of translation (human vs. post-editing, human vs. computer-aided translation), translation quality assessment, and quality estimation for machine translation. She is the operational head of the language technology section of the department, where she also teaches Translation Technology, Machine Translation and Localisation.

Els Lefever is an assistant professor at the LT3 language and translation technology team at Ghent University. She has a master in Linguistics and Literature (Romance languages) and holds a PhD in computer science from Ghent University on ParaSense: Parallel Corpora for Word Sense Disambiguation (2012). She started her career as a computational linguist at the R&D-department of Lernout & Hauspie Speech products. She has a strong expertise in machine learning of natural language and multilingual natural language processing, with a special interest for computational semantics, cross-lingual word sense disambiguation and multilingual terminology extraction. Currently, she supervises PhD research on the automatic extraction of topics, stance and argumentation from social media text, extracting terminology from comparable text, resolving ambiguous terms in cross-disciplinary collaboration and the automatic linking of medical lay and professional terminology to enhance comprehension of medical texts by patients. She is an executive board member of SIGLEX, the Special Interest Group on the Lexicon of the Association for Computational Linguistics and co-director of the Ghent Centre for Digital Humanities. She teaches Terminology and Translation Technology, Language Technology and Digital Humanities courses.

Joost Buysschaert is emeritus professor of the Department of Translation, Interpreting and Communication of Ghent University (Belgium), where he used to teach translation technology and medical translation (among other courses). He has remained active within the Department’s Terminology Centre ( and continues to publish on terminology, translation tools and translation training. Among the terminology projects that he is involved in, is the MeSH Termbase Project on English and Dutch medical terminology ( He advises the company ivs iscientia on the use of translation tools.

Pilot Study on Medical Translations in Lay Language: Post-Editing by Language Specialists, Domain Specialists or Both?

Despite the rich history of research into medical translation, there is a notable lack of empirical studies on the best workflow for this task, especially in a modern translation setting involving post-editing of machine translation. This pilot study was conducted in preparation for a large translation project of medical guidelines for laypeople from Dutch into French. It is meant to shed light on how medical post-editing is best handled. How do medical specialists (doctors) versus language specialists (translators) perform on this task? How can their respective strengths lead to the highest quality translation? To gain more insight into these questions, errors in the machine translation output of medical guidelines were annotated and labelled.

Based on these annotations, the product of doctors’ and translators’ post-editing could be analysed and classified into necessary changes (mistakes that were correctly solved), underrevisions (mistakes that were not corrected during post-editing), overrevisions (new errors introduced during post-editing) and hyperrevisions (preferential changes made by the post-editor).

The results of this small-scale research illustrate the complexity of the task and reveal some surprising findings (e.g., doctors sometimes struggle with domain-specific terminology, and translators appear to be less efficient because they introduce many hyperrevisions).


Lucía Guerrero and Kirill Soloviev (CPSL and ContentQuo)

Lucía Guerrero is a Machine Translation Specialist at CPSL, a linguistic services provider based in Spain with presence in Germany, the UK and the US. The range of services includes translation, software and web localization, multilingual SEO, interpreting, multimedia and e-learning in all major Western and Eastern European, Scandinavian, Asian and Middle-Eastern languages. Lucía is also part of the collaborative teaching staff at the Universitat Oberta de Catalunya. Having worked in the translation industry since 1998, she has also been a senior Translation and Localization Project Manager specialized in international institutions, has managed localization projects for Apple Computer and has translated children’s and art books.

Kirill Soloviev is the Co-Founder & CEO at ContentQuo, an Estonian tech startup helping Global Top-10 LSPs, enterprise loc teams, and government agencies reduce translation quality risk, improve vendor performance, and boost MT quality at any scale, regardless of their TMS. During his 16-year industry career, Kirill served in diverse buyer-side & vendor-side roles, most recently as Global Director of Localization at Acronis, a $150M data protection and disaster recovery software company. Kirill also co-organises Localization Unconference in Tallinn, collaborates with TAUS, and loves consulting both new and seasoned localization pros about their careers.

Machine Translation Evaluation at CPSL with ContentQuo

Evaluating the performance of an MT system with new content – that is, MT performance prediction – is one of the most challenging aspects of MT, mainly because lack of reference translations does not allow using automatic metrics. Additionally, human evaluation can be expensive and time-consuming. As an LSP, at CPSL we deal with hundreds of translation requests daily and must choose the most appropriate workflow for our customers in a timely manner. That’s why we needed a fast, reliable and cost-effective solution allowing us to find out if a given MT system is suitable for specific content. After trying different methods and tools, we chose the solution provided by ContentQuo, a translation quality management platform, based on the widely accepted Adequacy-Fluency methodology for MT evaluation. In our presentation we will introduce you to the challenges of MT quality evaluation and how we address them with ContentQuo.

9.45  Keynote speaker
Jochen Hummel (Coreon)

Jochen Hummel is co-founder and CEO of Coreon, the leading SaaS solution for multilingual knowledge systems. He is CEO of ESTeam AB, a provider of language technology and semantic solutions to EU organisations and corporations. He serves as vice-chairman of LT-Innovate, the Forum for Europe’s Language Technology Industry. He has a software development background and had grown his first company, TRADOS, to the world leader in translation memory and terminology software. In 2006 he founded Metaversum, the inventor of the virtual online world Twinity and was its CEO until 2010. He is a well-known, internationally respected software executive and serial entrepreneur. He serves on boards and is mentor/angel for several start-ups in Berlin.


Emmanuelle Esperança-Rodier and Caroline Rossi (Univ. of Grenoble-Alpes)

Emmanuelle Esperança-Rodier is a lecturer at Univ. Grenoble Alpes (UGA), France, where she teaches English for Specific Purposes, and a member of the Laboratoire d’Informatique de Grenoble (LIG). After defending a PhD in computational linguistics, on “Création d’un Diagnostique Générique de Langues Contrôlées, avec application particulière à l’Anglais Simplifié”, she worked as a post-editor in a translation agency. Back at University, she participated in IWSLT and WMT evaluation campaigns, as well as in several LIG projects. She now works on the evaluation of MT systems based on competences and focused on tasks, translation error analysis and multilinguism.

Caroline Rossi is a lecturer in the Applied Modern Languages department at Univ. Grenoble Alpes, where she teaches English and translation. She is a member of the Multilingual Research Group on Specialized Translation (GREMUTS) within ILCEA4  (Institut des Langues et Cultures d’Europe, Amérique, Afrique, Asie, Australie). Her current research focus is on integrating critical skills and understanding of both statistical and neural machine translation in translator training.

Time is Everything: A Comparative Study of Human Evaluation of SMT vs. NMT

Translation process research has developed tools to gather and analyse empirical data, but while a variety of measures have proved useful and reliable to measure post-edit machine translation effort (see e.g. Vieira 2016 : 42), translation processes are seldom considered when assessing the relevance of a given Machine translation post-editing scenario. Our study seeks to determine the impact of including MTPE in the evaluation process. We selected adequacy and fluency ratings. Based on two distinct experimental conditions, we then compared the ratings produced without performing PE and those produced immediately after a light PE process. Inter-rater reliability was assessed for each segment in each text (N=55) using Fleiss’ kappa for adequacy and fluency scores, and an intraclass correlation coefficient (Vieira 2016 : 52) for temporal measures. While the reliability of the measures collected without PE was low, the measures collected in PET were for the most part homogeneous. Qualitative analyses of the problematic segments, as evidenced by both kappa and intraclass correlation coefficients, showed strong Spearman’s correlations, whether positive or negative, between temporal measures and all the other metrics for NMT but weakest ones for SMT. Based on these results, we discuss the advantages and risks of NMTPE.


Caroline Champsaur (OECD)

Caroline Champsaur has been working at the OECD for almost 20 years as the Head of the Reference and Terminology Unit (Translation Division). Over the years, she led the change from paper to digital. As a Counsellor for Digital, she also manages projects on Terminology and Machine Translation and participates to several projects of OECD’s Digital Strategy.

She holds a PhD in computational linguistics and a Master’s Degree in computer science (University of Paris 7, France), as well as a Master’s Degree in German Language and Literature (University of Paris 7, France). She also studied Artificial Intelligence (Aachen University of Technology, Germany), German Language (Westfälische Wilhelms-Universität Münster, Germany) and French as a Foreign Language (University of Paris 7, France).


Workshop: OECD Neural Machine Translation Pilot Project : Methodology and Results

The OECD (Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development) has launched a Digital Strategy in order to maximize the business benefits of digital initiatives. In 2018, one of the Translation Division’s contributions to this program was the development of a Neural Machine Translation (NMT) system in collaboration with the WIPO (World Intellectual Property Organization). The objectives of this Pilot project was to explore new sources of efficiency gains and to extend the coverage of OECD content in both official languages (English and French).

This workshop will explain what has been achieved with this project. It will describe the methodology chosen to assess the quality of the sentences translated automatically and share the results and the lessons learned. Hopefully, it should help the participants decide how to take advantage of this new technology.

 11.15 Health break (in the Gallery and Marble Hall)
  Chair : Juliet Macan  


Sabrina Girletti, Pierrette Bouillon, Martina Bellodi and Philipp Ursprung (Univ. of Geneva)

Sabrina Girletti is a PhD student at the Translation Technology Department of the Faculty of Translation and Interpreting (FTI) at the University of Geneva, where she contributes to postgraduate courses in machine translation and post-editing. Her research interests include post-editing approaches and human factors in machine translation. As a young language technology consultant, she also collaborates with Suissetra, the Swiss association for translation technology promotion. She is currently involved in projects testing the implementation of machine translation at several corporate language service departments in Switzerland. Sabrina holds a master’s degree in Translation with a specialisation in Translation Technology from the University of Geneva and a bachelor’s degree in Linguistic and Cultural Mediation from the University of Naples L’Orientale.

Pierrette Bouillon has been Professor at the FTI, University of Geneva, since 2007. She is currently Director of the Department of Translation Technology (referred to by its French acronym TIM) and Dean of the Faculty. She has numerous publications in computational linguistics and natural language processing, particularly within lexical semantics (Generative lexicon theory), speech-to-speech machine translation for limited domains and, more recently, pre-editing and post-editing. Between 2012 and 2015, she coordinated the European ACCEPT project (Automated Community Content Editing PorTal). At present, she co-coordinates the new Swiss Research Center for Barrier-free communication with the Zurich University of Applied Sciences, and the project BabelDr with the HUG (Geneva University Hospitals). She also takes part in the new COST network EnetCollect: European Network for Combining Language Learning with Crowdsourcing Techniques.

Martina Bellodi graduated from the University of Bologna in 2003 and began her career as a freelance translator. In 2009 she started working as an in-house translator at Swiss Post Language Services. She was promoted to Head Translator in 2011 and to Deputy Head of Language Services in 2012. Since 2014 Martina has been in charge of Language Services’ operational and strategic management. She holds an EMBA degree from the University of Applied Sciences and Arts of Southern Switzerland (SUPSI) and has appeared as a keynote speaker at several industry conferences (tcworld Stuttgart, LQA Symposium Zurich, XTM Live Amsterdam).

Philipp Ursprung holds a degree in Translation and translation technology from the University of Surrey (UK). Before joining Swiss Post as language technology specialist in 2018, he has worked in the localization industry for more than 10 years in different positions with both language services providers and corporate language services departments, where he focused on project management and the introduction of TMS and MT systems and optimization of translation processes and workflows.

Preferences of End-Users for Raw and Post-Edited NMT in a Business Environment

The in-house Language Service at Swiss Post translates a wide variety of texts from and into German, French, Italian, and English. It has emerged from internal discussions over the years that the extensive hype around neural machine translation (NMT) and its improved fluency, in comparison with previous approaches, has led many of Swiss Post’s employees to turn to freely available, generic MT systems to obtain quick, raw translations.

Before introducing NMT into their production workflow, Swiss Post’s Language Service decided to carry out a study to assess whether their customers (Swiss Post employees, who are also end-users of translations produced by the Language Service) would rate post-edited NMT more highly than raw NMT for both a customized and a generic MT engine (DeepL). Most importantly, the study also assessed whether the customers would be willing to pay for post-edited texts when made aware of some production metadata, such as data security and cost. This latter aspect could help determine whether the customers would still value the human intervention or whether they would rather accept a lower quality translation and associated risks if it means they can save on costs.


Gold Sponsor Workshop

11.45 - 12.30 Elke Fuchs (STAR Group)
One for All, All for One: Three Inseperables for Translation. Experience the Optimal Combination of Reference Material, Terminology and Machine Translation

12.30-13.15 Judith Klein (STAR Group)

Judith Klein (MA Information Science) has 20 years’ experience in language technology. She joined STAR Germany in 1999 where she works as an expert in support, training and consulting for STAR’s language technology tools. Her most recent interest lies in STAR’s MT technology. Before she came to STAR, she worked in the Language Technology department at the German Research Center for Artificial Intelligence (DFKI) in Saarbrücken.

Using STAR MT for Legal Translation. See How Machine Translation Can Be Used for Legal Translations under Safe Conditions
Marion Kaczmarek and Michael Filhol (LIMSI)

Marion Kaczmarek is a PhD student in both linguistics and computer sciences, in the quite particular field of Sign Language. Former French Sign Language Interpreter, trained at the University of Rouen (France) where she also graduated with a Language Sciences Master’s degree, her studies have led her from cognitive sciences to Sign Language linguistics. Her PhD involves both Sign Language Translation and CAT software, trying to find ways of equipping the Sign Language translators with computer assistance. Her work started in 2018, joining the CNRS (the French nation scientific research center) and other associates on a more global project concerning media accessibility.

Michael Filhol is a computer scientist who has always been passionate about languages and linguistics. He naturally turned to NLP in his studies, which took place in France and Ireland after the year 2000, always learning new languages and comparing how they work as a side hobby.

He chose to focus on Sign Language for his PhD, the most exotic linguistic system he knew, and which he had been learning since high school. Largely still unknown to science and virtually absent in the NLP field, he addressed and proposed a formal description model of signs for Sign Language synthesis by 3D avatars. He defended his PhD in 2008 at Université Paris Sud (Orsay, France), and continued his research career on Sign Language processing.

He stayed for a post-doctoral year at Gallaudet University (Washington, DC, USA), where all classes and services are accessible in Sign Language, and some of the most famous researchers on Sign linguistics are hosted. Back in France, he got his permanent researcher position at CNRS (the French national scientific research centre), where he kept working on the formal description and computer implementation of Sign Language.

He eventually proposed AZee, a formal approach capturing all levels of discourse and capable of driving a 3D avatar to animate Sign from a combination of semantic operations. It is now used by the world leaders in Sign synthesis, as input for their animation platforms. While always improving and extending the coverage of the AZee approach, his research interests have grown to encompass more topics like graphical writing systems for Sign Language, or automatic and assisted text-to-Sign translation.

Assisting Sign Language Translation: what Interface Given the Lack of Written Form and the Spatial Grammar?

Computer-assisted translation (CAT) software offers tools for the translators to ease their tasks, and gain time as well as comfort. However, despite the growing need for Sign Language content, there has been no effort to equip Sign Language translation with CAT software. The problem we address here is the specification of such software. Sign Languages are visual and iconic, with grammar and discourse organisation, but also no written form. This is problematic when it comes to CAT, for it relies on editable written structures and the fact that the concatenation of the translated segments will result in the translation of the concatenated source segments (we call it the linearity assumption).

In this paper, we explain that Sign Language cannot follow those rules. We address those differences by means of new adapted modules which would be more flexible, and by considering new tools based on professionals’ feedback towards their actual practice as well as the problems they encounter during the translation process. We will detail those results along with the presentation of how we envisage a sign language concordancer, and its database.



Emmanuelle Esperança-Rodier, Francis Brunet-Manquat and Sophia Eady (Univ. of Grenoble-Alpes)
Accolé: A Collaborative Platform of Error Annotation for Aligned Corpora

This article presents a platform, named ACCOLÉ, for the collaborative annotation of translation errors.

ACCOLÉ offers a range of services that allow simplified management of corpora and typologies of errors, annotation of effective errors, collaboration during annotation, and finally different kinds of search in corpora. ACCOLÉ allows the annotation of translation errors according to built-in error typologies, Vilar’s typology or DQF-MQM or uploaded ones, on several corpora of different texts, translated by different Statistical or Neural Machine Translation systems, as well as processing the annotated corpora created in order to look for typical error models and patterns, related to a specific MT system.

The collaboration feature also gives the possibility to detect any misleading interpretation of an error type among the annotators. ACCOLÉ currently provides 15 corpora, 7 projects of 201,474 words and 18,301 annotations that we will describe in the final paper. Eventually, we will implement the semi-automatic propagation of found patterns on other corpora to enlarge the scope of linguistic studies, thus providing to the community a wide range of error annotated bilingual parallel corpora.

 13.45 Lunch (in the Gallery and Marble Hall)
  Chair : Olaf-Michael Stefanov  
Josep Bonet (WTO)

Josep Bonet was not meant to be a translator, but rather a chemist. Something went wrong, though, and finished by spending almost 30 years in the Directorate-General for Translation of the European Commission. He played most the roles available, translator, help desk officer, information officer, communication officer, manager of units concerned with translation, IT, language technologies and terminology, learning & development, knowledge management, etc. He chaired the JIAMCATT forum, where international organisations discuss language technology. Presently he is Director of the languages, Documentation and Information Management Division of the World Trade Organization. He pretends that abandoning active translation allowed the average quality of translation output to increase substantially.

Innovation in the International Organisation: Can we Do Better?

The modern economy is all about innovation, disruption, shifting paradigms, accelerating the pace of change. International Organizations may be perceived as not following this trend. Is this true? How do they react to changes in their environment? This presentation will give some insights, based on experience in two such organizations, one very large and another of medium size.


Berrnardette Castaneira Legrand (Univ. of Ottawa)

Certified translator for the State of Baja California, Mexico; Associate Professor in Translation Studies at the Faculty of Languages, Universidad Autonoma de Baja California (UABC) Mexico; second year PhD student in Translation Studies, University of Ottawa, Canada. Research fields of interest include: Legal dimensions of translation, Translation Technologies, and Terminology.

Poster: Legal translators and the Use of Translation Technologies

The present study examines the use of language technologies in legal translation, according to the findings of existing results and in designing and implementing a new study in northern Mexico. Considering that the use of technology has become a fundamental skill for professional translators, it is essential to bridge the gap between legal translators and language technologies. Legal translators’ uptake of technology has not always been positive. This research was conducted online with participants from Baja California, and participants are certified legal translators for the State; the participants’ main working languages are Spanish and English. The participants answered a questionnaire, which helped to identify the translators’ profiles, their use of electronic resources and adoption or non-adoption of language technologies. Data gathered was analysed in a qualitative manner. Main findings have shown that some legal translators implement translation technologies in their work. We have been able to identify, to some extent, the tools that legal translators are using. Although the majority of translators reported using electronic dictionaries, term banks, web tools, and search engines, some translators have already started to implement to CAT tools, such as terminology management systems, translation memory systems, term extractors, active terminology recognition tools, concordancers, bitexts and aligners, and localization tools.

Argelia Pena Aguilar (Univ. of Ottawa)

Argelia Peña Aguilar has been an Associate professor at the University of Quintana Roo (Mexico) for eleven years.  She has taught English Language and Translation/Interpreting courses from English into Spanish in the Language and Education Department.  She is currently studying for a PhD in Translation Studies at the University of Ottawa (second year), and her research interests revolve around translation technologies training, and feminist translation studies.

Poster: Usefulness of Translation Technology Training from Mexican Universities

In a study done in 2018 it was reported that few professors teach technology in few translation courses in Mexico. Some reasons for this were that instructors had not been well trained in their academic programs when they were students, or they lacked a more comprehensive knowledge of these technologies (Peña, 2018). Effective training was not possible for most of these instructors as students and they seem to be reproducing similar learning insufficiencies with future translators. Because of this, another survey-based project was devised to identify the use that professionals who graduated from Mexican translation programs are making of translation technologies.

How has their educational background affected their disposition towards the use of translation technologies? Some results indicate that professional translators do not resort to the use of “core” translation technologies very often, but do use other electronic resources useful for accomplishing their tasks. One in two translators thinks their income has increased due to their technology knowledge, and they learn about these technologies on their own. Professional translators think they could have learned about Translation Environment Tools ((TEnTs) at university (and they wished they had), but university instructors are still not teaching these technologies as much. So there is a need reported by a few professionals, but not being dealt by some university programs.

Keywords: translation technologies, translation training, TEnTs, translation environment tools, computer-aided translation, CAT, Mexico

Peña, A. (2018). Use of technologies in Mexican translation programs. Unpublished manuscript.

Marc van Dommelen (DGI - European Commission)
The Interpreter's Digital Toolbox


Discussion Panel
17.15 Closing ceremonies and invitation to TC42  
17.30 End of conference